Biocontrol is the application of one living organism to control another: also referred to as a biological pest control. The biological application is mainly introduced to reduce the population of a pest and to produce pest free yields. It is a self-sustaining and long-term treatment method, for managing invasive plants and pests. The living organism applied in this system is used to suppress a weed infestation. Furthermore to control pests (including insects, pathogens, and grazing animals).
Biocontrol Agents (or) biological control agents
Biocontrol agents are the natural enemies like parasitism, predation and other mechanisms for controlling plant pests. They play an important role in controlling the plant pests like parasitic nematodes, weeds, parasitic nematodes, and mites. The biological control agent helps in maintaining and balancing the plant species along with their natural enemies.
Types of Biocontrol Agents:
- Inundative Bio-Control: This approach uses pathogens, applied on a target weed at a very high rate in an aspect that is alomst similar to herbicide application. The most common pathogens used in inundative bio-control include parasitic nematodes and nuts. This approach does not prevent the invasive plant from increasing at a later date.
- Classical biocontrol: It uses agent populations that would waver in a natural prey and predator relationship. This method adopts natural predatory insects of the invasive plant. It creates an eternal relationship between a plant and biological control animals.
List of Biological Control Agents:
- Insect Predators: They are mainly free-living species that consume preys in large number during their lifespan. Because the majority of predatory insects constitute crop pests. Some of the predators include Lacewings, Spiders, Flies, Beetles, and dragonflies, ladybugs, lady beetles, parasitic wasps and parasitic beetles.
- Pathogens: Virus, Bacteria, and fungi are relatively pathogenic micro-organisms that are host specifics or kill their host. Some of the microbial diseases occur naturally. As a result, they are used as biological pesticides.
- Bacteria: Bacteria belonging to coccobacillus group are more pathogenic to insects. They are used for biological control. They infect digestive tract of insects thus limiting the options, for controlling insects with sucking mouthparts namely scale insects and aphids.
- Viruses: The use of insect viruses as a controlling agent is still in inception. Since they are host specific, they turn out to have good potential as biocontrol agents.
- Fungi: The fungi Entomophaga is effective against pests namely green peach aphid.
- Parasitoids: They lay eggs in the body of the host (insect), eventually killing the host. Later developing larva use it as a source of food. It is one of the most widely biological pest control.
Merits and Demerits of Biocontrol Agents:
- The biological control agents are environmentally friendly and hence cause no side effects.
- Less cost compared to other Agrochemicals – pesticides and insecticides.
- Easily available, easy to use and most noteworthy, is effective throughout the season.
- Helps in reducing the use of chemicals and other pesticides.
- It affects the product quality.
- Biological control agents don’t destroy pest completely.
- It is effective only for large-scale usage.
Keeping in mind above-mentioned merits and demerits, it is advisable to approach professional pest control services if you face pest infestation in your house.
Choose HiCare, the leading pest control service provider in India because we believe in eradicating the root of the problem, rather than just eliminating the surface nuisances.